I’ve been thinking about how best to translate the names of the Nigerian sect known as Boko Haram.
The sect’s unofficial, Hausa name – “Boko Haram” – comes from remarks by the sect’s late leader Muhammad Yusuf. This name is often rendered in English “Western education is forbidden.” That translation sacrifices some potential nuance and depth.
“Haram,” in Arabic and in Hausa, could be translated not just as “forbidden,” but as “something forbidden according to Islamic law and precepts.” This is the phrasing in Paul Newman’s A Hausa-English Dictionary. Translating “haram” as “Islamically forbidden” represents a middle ground between a one word translation and the longer phrase.
“Boko” is trickier. It can certainly mean “Western education” – this is the first definition Newman lists – but it can also refer to the Romanized Hausa script. There is some debate over the word’s etymology. Some say that “Boko” is a corruption of the English “book,” which would link the word strongly to educational contexts. Others say the word is of Hausa origin and means fake or deceitful, and appears in contexts other than just education. Some add that the usage of “Boko” in reference to Western education – even before the “Boko Haram” sect appeared – connoted a feeling that Western education could mislead Muslims into accepting false knowledge (including the feeling that Western education could serve as a gateway for Christianization).
Regardless of etymology, more than just education is bound up in the word “Boko.” The phrase ” ‘yan boko,” where ” ‘yan” means people, could be translated, “people/representatives of Western education,” i.e., people who have graduated from Western-style educational institutions. But the phrase could have a broader, cultural connotation – “people who operate within Western-style frameworks and institutions” or “representatives of Western culture” or even “Westernized people.” The idea of ‘yan boko, at least in the ways I have heard it used, also carries a connotation that these people are elites – that their particular credentials and experiences have placed them in positions of power because they can navigate Western-style institutions.
Put that all together, then, and you have “Boko Haram” meaning something like, “Western culture is Islamically forbidden” or “the Westernized elites and their way of doing things contradict Islam.” Recall that in addition to attacking Western education, Yusuf also forbade Muslims from working for secular governments.
Ahl al Sunna li al Da’wa wa al Jihad
Turning to the group’s official, Arabic name, we have “Ahl al Sunna li al Da’wa wa al Jihad,” or if you want the phonetic rendering, “Ahlussunna lid-Da’wa wal Jihad.” Let’s break that down word by word:
- al Sunna=the normative tradition or model of the Prophet Muhammad
- al da’wa=the call to Islam
- al jihad=jihad
Recently, the translation “People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad” has spread widely. I think this translation conveys the sense of the meaning, but it misses a few nuances.
First, the translation takes the word “sunna” from the second position in the phrase and moves it to the penultimate spot. What you lose then is the compound meaning of “Ahl al Sunna.” That smaller phrase is one synonym for Sunni Muslims (“sunni” being the adjectival form of “sunna”). It is a fairly common phrase used by Salafis to describe themselves – the Salafis I met in Kano, for example, did not refer to themselves as Salafis or Wahhabis, but as “Ahl al Sunna wa al Jama’a” – “the people of the Prophetic model and the Muslim community.” But one must be careful – non-Salafi Muslims, including Sufis, can apply this phrase to themselves as well – as with, for example, a prominent Sufi militia in southern Somalia.
Given its appropriation by Salafis in the Nigerian context, Boko Haram may use the phrase “Ahl al Sunna” partly to affirm its own Salafi identity, and partly to reference its break with the “Ahl al Sunna” circle around the late Shaykh Ja’far Mahmud Adam of Kano (d. 2007). Shaykh Ja’far was at one time a teacher of Yusuf, but he publicly denounced Yusuf when Yusuf began to forbid Muslims from working for secular governments and pursuing Western-style education.
If we keep the phrase “Ahl al Sunna” intact when we translate Boko Haram’s name, we end up with something subtly different, something that emphasizes the Salafi identity that is a part of Boko Haram’s self-definition. We could translate the sect’s Arabic name as, “Salafis/Sunnis for Preaching and Jihad” – with “Salafis” being a somewhat neutral term imposed by the outside analyst, and “Sunnis” being, again, the adjectival form of the name the group calls itself. This is a tricky choice to make, because certain translations can imply tacit agreement with the sect’s claims to represent the Prophet Muhammad’s true legacy. The sect members might even wish us to translate their name as “Orthodox Muslims for Preaching and Jihad.”
Further variants: If “preaching” does not capture the full sense of a “call” embedded in “da’wa” (and, honestly, it doesn’t), we could try, “Salafis for Calling People to Islam and Engaging in Jihad.” Going a step further, my own preference, increasingly, is to leave as many complex terms untranslated as possible – perhaps that would leave us, then, with something like “Salafis for Da’wa and Jihad.”
There is no definitive way to translate either the unofficial Hausa name or the official Arabic name. I have experimented with these translations mostly out of intellectual interest in the translation problem, but I do want to reiterate a key point about each name:
- Hausa: “boko” can signify more than just Western education, but also the broader cultural values and social positions that access to Western education can bring.
- Arabic: the phrase “Ahl al Sunna” emphasizes Boko Haram’s self-definition as Salafis, i.e. as people who belong to Salafi traditions and employ particular methods of interpreting and applying Islamic scriptures.
UPDATE: Dr. Paul Newman, in a 2013 article available here (.pdf), conclusively (at least to my mind) settles the etymological questions around the word “boko.” From his conclusion (p. 11):
Hausa boko does not mean ‘book’ and it is not derived etymologically from the English word book. The phonetic and orthographic similarity between the two is purely coincidental. They are what the French call “faux amis” (“false friends”). The accidental similarity in spelling between the two words has no historical significance other than having served to lead us astray, where “us” includes political and social commentators with a modicum of knowledge about the Hausa language, as well as a host of well-regarded Hausa linguistic experts. We were all hoodwinked. Whereas the idea that boko came from book looked plausible from the outside, it was really shallow on the inside. In other words, we were all victims of biri-boko (‘monkey-fraud’)! Despite the many assertions regarding the etymology of Hausa boko reported above, the fact is that boko is a native Hausa word, originally meaning sham, fraud, inauthenticity, and such which came to represent western education and learning, and NOT a loanword coming from English book.
I think its worth saying that the name Boko Haram was not chosen by the group -in the early days they even scolded people who used it to describe them. It is my understanding that in the time before the 2009 uprising the name was coined by the sect’s neighbours, who were concerned and irritated by their rather aggressive and eccentric (but at this stage peaceful) evangelical activities. Some of these neighbours were migrant Christians, unquestionably Hausa speakers but with roots outside northern Muslim culture. That doesn’t mean to say that all you say isn’t spot on, of course, but its worth restating that the genesis of the name Boko Haram was also a street-level comment on the group as well as a summary of their beliefs.
Very good point.
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The only thing is that Boko Haram are far from Salafiyyah and do not explicitly refer to them as such.
Refer to appendix 5 here:
Click to access SalafiManhaj_BokoHaram.pdf
We could probably debate forever whether Boko Haram are Salafiyya or not. You might be interested in an article on the movement in the Journal of Religion in Africa 42.2 (2012) on this subject: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/15700666/42/2.
Thanks for the reference to that paper. I’ll check it out.
Though, as discussed in other posts, it is a major misconceptualisation.
It is almost as if these days anyone sporting a beard and traditional clothing is regarded as “Salafist”, and this is incredulous.
“Boko” themselves did not refer to themselves as such at all.
I agree that the criteria for defining Salafis are getting very loose. With Boko Haram, though, they stand in recognizable relationships to other Salafi movements in Northern Nigeria and to various currents of thought in Saudi Arabia.
I would also say that someone does not have to call themselves a Salafi for analysts to label them such. If someone emphasizes strict interpretations of Qur’an and hadith, opposes the Shi’a and various forms of Sufism, and invokes figures like Shaykh Nasir al Din al Albani as intellectual and religious authorities, I think the label Salafi can be appropriate. I think of Salafism as a particular approach toward scripture and a particular intellectual tradition.
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Appropriating the colonist’s language to coin a new term that includes both meanings from two languages is a function of prophets in new religious movements. Thus, “boko” is a play on words that refers to “book” and “education” but also to “inauthentic,” and the use of “haram” as a modifier intensifies the meaning within which is the meaning and purpose of the movement. I would translate “boko haram” as the specifically religious “forbidding/prohibition against” the influence of all western/modern culture, because it threatens “pure” Islam.
Salafi strictly applies to the North African Islamic school that confronted the pressure of Western influence (through colonialism) on traditional Muslim cultures. The Salafist movement was confused early on by Western analysts with the Wahhabi school in Saudi Arabia, which was introduced later in a different geographical area and utilized by the Saudi dynasty to enforce the new Saudi Arabian state. The Salafis are the Ahl al Sunna who alone will attain heaven/salvation, because they follow the way of the righteous supporters of the Prophet Mohammad and the early caliphs well before the Sunni/Shia split Islam into two major branches.
From the name, itself, and the name that boko haram gives itself, it is clear that it adheres to the same foundation of millennial Islam that formed al-Qaida, which became most coherent after the Egyptian jihadists who went to fight in Afghanistan took over the primary al-Qaida, after the assassination of its founder, Abdullah Azzam. The intellectual forebear of all North African jihadism–the primary jihadism that has a global purpose of reestablishing a Caliphate–is Sayid Qutb, author of _Milestones_, a minister of education in Egypt who was executed by the regime for his radical ideas. Jihadism is a new religious movement, although it sees itself as the bearer of the most ancient and pure Muslim tradition. Real Salafists refer to the jihadists as “Qutbists” or heretics.
Jean E. Rosenfeld
historian of religions
It is cleared that this group are not operate on the believe and habit of Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama’at As-Salafiyi. They are known as At-Tadomun or Jama’at At-Takfir who believe that whoever works or support any form of government rather than Shari’at mode of government are to be kill. Ahlu sunnah as-salafi never opposed the leaders Muslim or Non-Muslim
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